Social Research Category
Proponent: Ma. Teressa S. Alvarez, Exequiel M. Perez, Elmer A. Rosete
Goal 6 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out by the United Nations 2030 Agenda and SDGs is a national call for Clean Water and Sanitation. For society's demographic, social, and economic development, reliable and outstanding water quality and long-term water supply services are deemed essential. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the City of Ilagan Water District in terms of water supply and wastewater management. The performance evaluation was based on the following domains - (a) sustainability of water supply; (b) consumer satisfaction; and (c) waste management practices; including compliance of the local government unit and service units by water security and management. The International Water Association's assessment framework and indicators employed (IWA). The method used to collect information and/or data for this study, key informant interviews, and field surveys were conducted, with a total of 300 respondents drawn from 10 active barangays using stratified random sampling. The results showed that in terms of water sustainability for the next 60-year considering the future population and based on the present demand as of 2019, water demand will skyrocket with an equivalent percent increase of 12%, 36%, and 72% for 2030, 2050, and 2080 respectively. The result analysis does not include the agricultural demands or groundwater withdrawal for agricultural purposes and individual domestic wells within the City of Ilagan. Overall acceptability on water quality was acceptable with a rating of 43% wherein 55%, 54%, 43% and 31% acceptability ratings were attributed to taste, odor, color, and pressure, respectively. On the issue of sustainability, it is highly recommended to develop alternative water resources that could increase water distribution efficiency, eliminate or lessen illegal tapping/ connection, increase coverage area, and maintain water quality valuation as a sustainable approach to sufficiently and dependably supply water demand for future generations.
Technical Research Category
1. Visible-light Photodegration of Methylene blue by a layer-by-layer Assembled Ti02/ChlorophyllPoly (acrylic acid) Composite Film
Proponent: Genes P. Maylem, Jose B. Abucay Jr.
Titanium dioxide/chlorophyll/poly(acrylic acid) (TCP) composite films were fabricated for a potential application in the visible light photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. TiO₂/chlorophyll powders were prepared using various concentrations (32, 67, and 100% v/v) of chlorophyll extracted from mahogany tree (Swietenia sp.) leaves. The TCP catalysts were deposited on glass substrates by a simple layer-by-layer deposition with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). The different TCP films containing 33, 67, and 100% v/v were denoted as TCP 33, TCP 67, and TCP 100, respectively. The FESEM images revealed the spherical orphology of TiO₂ with particle sizes below 200 nm. As the chlorophyll concentration increased, the distinct morphology became less apparent, and cluster formation accompanied by a decrease in surface roughness was observed. Visible light-induced photodegradation of methylene blue as the model pollutant showed a highest degradation efficiency of 24% after exposure to visible light for 2 h. This result was observed from TCP 33. Thus, the addition of chlorophyll to TiO₂ realized visible light sensitivity. Overall, the results suggest that the composite film is ideal for solar light-driven photodegradation of organic contaminants in water.
2. Biofilter Potential of Indigenous Agricultural Waste Materials for the Removal of Heavy Metals in Water
Proponent: Genes P. Maylem, Goldyn Anne C. Aquino, James Kennard S. Jacob, Ryan C. Dumasig ,Rolando D. Pedro, Sarah B. Aquino
Bioremediation using oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) spent offers a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach to water treatment. However, this needs further study for its application in Isabela province due to the differences in the composition of mushrooms spent in the Philippines compared to those countries. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the quality of water in the Magat dam reservoir, and develop a prototype water treatment system integrated with oyster mushroom spent mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) for the treatment of heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and Arsenic (As) in water. Two stations at the Magat dam reservoir were identified for water sampling for the analysis of heavy metals. Then, a water treatment system incorporated with oyster mushroom spent was developed. Separate biofilter experiments for Cd and As were performed at various flow rates (1 mL/min, 5 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) and the percent removal was calculated. All water samples were analyzed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). Heavy metals were detected from the Magat dam reservoir water samples (Cd- 0.000046 ppm, As- 0.014 ppm, Pb- 0.0016 ppm) and all were below permissible levels based on the Philippine National Standards. Water treatment system with mushroom spent has the highest efficiency at the slowest flow rate of 1 mL/min (i.e, 97% for Cd and 95% for As). However, of the two heavy metals, As generally had the greater percent removal compared to Cd even at faster flow rates, suggesting that the filter used had a greater affinity towards Cd than As. The fabricated water treatment system based on oyster mushroom spent is effective for the removal of Cd and As in contaminated water. These findings can be used as a basis for a sustainable solution to treating heavy metals from industrial waste and simultaneously solving the waste issue in mushroom farms.
3. Impact Assessment of Future Water Demand and Supply for Climate Change and Socio-Economic Scenarios using WEAP Model of the Magat River Basin
Proponent: Orlando F. Balderama, Lanie A. Alejo, Jeoffrey Lloyd R. Bareng, Elmer A. Rosete, Catherine A. Bartolome, Arlen S. Alejandro, Carlo C. Ablan
Water is a vital resource in the river basin, and management of this resource is essential. This study aims to assess the impacts of the likely future water demand and supply for climate change and socio-economic scenarios using WEAP model of the Magat River Basin (MRB). The Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) is a user-friendly tool that takes an integrated approach to water resources planning and policy analysis. The model is based on the water balance concept to reproduce hydrological processes. The model simulation demonstrated that WEAP can predict streamflow with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and coefficient of Determination R² of 0.74 for the calibration period and NSE = 0.77 and R² = 0.83 for the validation period. The impact of high conveyance efficiency (CE) and moderate Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) will give zero unmet water demand across population growth in 2025, 2030, 2050, and 2080. Santiago City as additional domestic water users will significantly increase water demand by as much as 473.61 percent, 511.00 percent, 660.56 percent, and 884.91 percent in 2025, 2030, 2050, and 2080, respectively. However, with the combination of high CE and moderate AWD interventions, the significant increase in water demand will result to zero unmet water demand for both domestic and agricultural surface water. For the climate change scenario, the results showed an increase in the future unmet water demand during the dry years and wet years of the mid and late 21st century for both RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios. These findings indicate that climate is expected to significantly affect the MRB where agriculture is vital for the local economy and small farmers. The projected increase in population growth, the impact of climate change, and the increase in water users will only worsen the current levels of unmet water demands. This study recommends the implementation of high CE and moderate AWD interventions as soon as possible. Improvement in water accessibility due to these interventions is enough to meet the water demands across all scenarios tested in this study.
Proponent: Orlando F. Balderama, Lanie A. Alejo, Jeoffrey Lloyd R. Bareng, Elmer A. Rosete, Christine Gay P. Liberato, Christine Mata, Catherine A. Bartolome, Tristan Janryll A. Mata, Carol Joy Mangadap, Jennelyn L. Raymundo, Jasmine Pasion
Water and other natural resources within the Cagayan River Basin (CRB) are recognized as critical resources that must be appropriately managed and maintained to provide greater benefits to communities, farmers, and other water users in the region and surrounding areas. In order to achieve water security in the region, water assessment and resource planning need to be strengthened and integrated. The water security index (WSI) for CRB and MSB was developed using water security dimensions. These dimensions define the overall WSI of the basin. It considers a variety of driving forces that impact water security, including domestic water, economic water, environmental water, water-related disaster, and water governance. Each dimension was evaluated in relation to specified factors using one or more indicators. The values were estimated for each indicator using several standardized variables on a scale of 1 to 5. Based on the computed overall WSI, results revealed that CRB has a descriptive value of "good", while MSB has "very good". This means that the CRB has a structure and natural configuration that facilitate water security. It is well-positioned in most aspects of water security. Some aspects of water security, however, remain a source of concern. While its security against certain dimensions may not be as high as others, its overall situation is still remarkably good. Several policy recommendations and management interventions for water resources management were identified and specific methods and solutions to address the identified challenges and gaps in various water security dimensions.
Proponent: Orlando F. Balderama, Lanie A. Alejo, Jeoffrey Lloyd R. Bareng, Englebert O. Manmano, Tristan Janryll A. Mata, Jeremy T. Balderama, Jayzelle S. Ventura, Genesis L. Querubin, Micko A. Nuňez, Minandro G. Alejo
A purely hydrodynamic modeling of the behavior and dynamics of the Magat Dam and Reservoir was performed to evaluate the ability of Telemac 2D in simulating the actual flow during extreme and low-flow events. The hydrodynamic behavior in the reservoir level was accurately reproduced using Telemac 2D. This model was calibrated and validated using data during typhoons Rolly and Ulysses (November 2020) and Severe Tropical Storm Florita (August 2022). The simulated results showed that the applied model could precisely reproduce outflow conditions. The modelling results can be used to proactively assess the hydrodynamic behavior of the reservoir during extreme and low-flow events. Additionally, this hydrodynamic model can now be coupled with the sediment transport module of the OpenTelemac-Mascaret suite of solvers called "Gaia" to potentially understand the sediment transport dynamics of the Magat Dam and Reservoir.
Proponent: Rafael J. Padre, Melanie A. Baguio, Edward B. Panganiban, Rudy U. Panganiban, Carluz R. Bautista, Justine Ryan L. Rigates, Allisandra Pauline Mariano
Cauayan City, Isabela is one of the country's premier agro-industrial hubs and considered as one of the Philippines' first smart cities (Smart Communications, 2019). Since urban areas, such as Cauayan City, are the hub of economic development and activity, there is a tendency for people and businesses to converge, with that, a risk analysis was done to analyze hazards for urban water infrastructures within the city. With the aid of GIS Software and gathered data, maps were generated for flood hazards with 5, 25, and 100 yr. return period, Analysis of liquefaction and ground shaking as well as drought hazard of urban water infrastructures in the City. Risk maps were generated in this study wherein water infrastructures such as drainage and water utilities located at the 4 barangays namely Cabaruan, Alicaocao, Turayong and Labinab were classified as high risk in flooding. For liquefaction and ground shaking analysis most of the barangays were classified as low risk. Similarly, majority of the barangays were classified as moderately dry and near normal for drought hazard analysis. Generally, the study demonstrated the need of an intervention to address high risk of water infrastructures from flooding at the City of Cauayan.
Proponent: Maribel S. Abalos, Paulo Opiña Jr.
Yearly, the rainy season always happens. where water is directly on the soil, roof, plants, etc. Without proper harvesting, this water may cause damage in many aspects, such as over-watering to the plants, soil erosion, bacteria, and gems that cause viruses to begin to grow if it has been tainted by dirt and other impurities. So, proper harvesting of roof rainwater is important because it will be utilized for bathrooms, laundry, garden irrigation, etc. This paper presents the average rainfall, which represents the monthly average. water availability, water demand, and water storage. As stated, the water demand is 2500 liters per day, which equals about 75000 liters per month. Wherein the amount of water that can be collected from the roof is larger than the water demand. The findings of this paper were extremely beneficial to the campus because they presented the entire details of the roof rainwater harvested in liters, which will serve as the basis for utilization. The information and communication technology building at ISU Ilagan was used as a sample in this paper.