Research | SDG 11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities

Technical Research Category

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Geraldin J. Paguigan


This study determined the status of the cities in the Cagayan Valley Region in attaining Sustainability. Specifically, Sustainable Development Goal 11, Making Cities and Communities Sustainable and Resilient is the focus of the study. The Local Government Units of the cities in the Cagayan Valley believe that planning for urban development is necessary and the use of smart technology is a strategy and an aid for planning to achieve sustainable development. Tuguegarao, Ilagan, and Cauayan are component cities, while Santiago is the first Independent city in the region. Among the four, Tuguegarao has the smallest land area and most populated, while Ilagan has the largest land area. As per records, Santiago has the highest revenue while Cauayan has the lowest. The cities were compared and ranked according to the satisfaction ratings of the respondents in the attainment of SDG 11. The result of the study revealed that the City of Ilagan has the highest satisfaction ratings followed by Tuguegarao,
Cauayan, and Santiago City. To determine the factors affecting the satisfaction ratings, the result was correlated to the physical and economic profile of the cities specifically the revenue, land area, and rate of poverty incidence. Based on the result, it has a significant, and a positive correlation at 0.537 to the land area of the city while an inverse relationship on the revenue and poverty incidence with -0.376 and -0.228. It is recommended that efforts in achieving SDG 11 must be monitored, evaluated, and analyzed to improve the approaches and strategies. The socio-economic aspects of the people living in the urban area must be the priority, and development plans must be well-planned to achieve the quality of life, economic progress, and sustainable development.

Keywords: Economic Progress, Urban Planning, Poverty

Nilo E. Padilla, Joe-Ann Payne, Ralph John Lapastura, Errol John Cadeliña


There is a lack of information available on dairy vermicomposting technology in the Cagayan Valley Region, which has led to its non-adoption. The Department of Agriculture (DA) and other government organizations, on the other hand, have acknowledged and funded advocacy initiatives to raise awareness about the use of dairy manure in vermicomposting technology. As a result, the goal of this study was to determine the level of awareness, utilization, and adoption of vermicomposting technology using dairy manures, as well as to identify issues and constraints in the utilization and adoption of vermicomposting using dairy waste, and to suggest possible solutions. The Likert scale, frequency, percentage, and average mean were used to assess the data collected during the interview (FGD) and (KII). The average mean of the samples was used to calculate the levels of awareness, adoption, and utilization. According to the findings, Dairy MSMEs have an average level of awareness of 3.2, indicating that most of them have moderately high awareness, while the level of adoption of Dairy MSMEs has an overall scale of 3.6, indicating that most of the respondents have a high level of adoption, resulting in a high level of utilization of vermicompost dairy manure. However, according to the distribution of the respondents' issues and concerns in the vermicomposting technology using dairy animal waste, the respondents' main concern was difficulty in integrating vermicomposting technology, lack of technical know-how, added cost in the production process, costly and limited source of capital and insufficient technical and financial support. As a result, the study suggests that capacity building and access to loan windows are steps that should be taken to increase awareness and utilization of technology to strengthen respondents' knowledge, abilities, skills, behavior, and incomes in determining agricultural long-term strategy.

Keywords: Adoption, Awareness, Dairy, Utilization, Vermicomposting

Orlando F. Balderama, Lanie A. Alejo, Jeoffrey Lloyd R. Bareng, Czarimah L. Singson, Elmer A. Rosete, Christine B. Mata, Alvin John B. Felipe, Jeremy T. Balderama, Jayzelle S. Ventura, Genesis Querubin


This study was conducted to assess the impacts of climate change on the inflow of Magat Dam using Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) Model. The knowledge of intake or inflow parameters is essential in planning and scheduling dam discharges, measuring and anticipating current and future power production, and preventing floods. Climate projections from CLIRAM tool from PAG-ASA was used as climate change scenarios. The SWAT was then used to simulate, calibrate and validate the model. Based on the calibration and validation results, the SWAT Model can adequately predict the inflow of water in the Magat Reservoir. The results showed an NSE of 0.73, R2 of 0.745, RSR of 0.52 and a PBIAS of 8.24, which were statically acceptable. The model showed that there would be at most 20.42% increase and 27.08% decrease in the inflow for dry and wet years, respectively. Furthermore, peak inflows were likely to occur during the months of September and October with at most 317.12 m3/s. The results of the model should be used as a basis for long-term plans of NIA-DRD, RBC and LGUs to prepare and respond to future climate risks in water resources especially in the reservoir.

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Projection, Inflow, Peak, SWAT

Technological Research Category

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Noel B. Damian, Sonny Boy V. Villegas, Jr


Teaching digital hardware theories and concepts in a practical way to undergraduate students requires both a teaching and learning modality with a laboratory infrastructure. It is a general knowledge that laboratory-based activities form a critical component of the overall support for teaching and learning to develop skills on using digital logic chips, to understand sequential circuit operations, to perform basic finite state machine design work and to get ready for more advanced digital logic design study (Pang, 2015) (Ajao et. Al., 2014). Prototype model is concerned with a trainer capable of displaying digital devices operatively connected in a circuit configuration, which precisely duplicates the schematic diagram of the circuit under consideration. The training apparatus comprises a display panel on which a selected set of digital circuits are represented in schematic and block diagram form. These circuits comprise a sufficient set of the usual gating and memory circuits employed in digital apparatus to make up any of the conventional data processing sub-assemblies. The AC-DC Power Supply is implemented in ISU-San Mateo for testing of functionalities in terms of design, construction and safety, the researchers employed 10 Electrical and 10 Electronics Technology students who are going to use. For measuring tool, the researchers applied Analytic rubrics to measure the functionalities because it provides useful feedback on areas of strength and weakness. The collected data will be treated statistically using weighted mean to find out that the designed and constructed prototype model obtain a satisfactory rating and positive feedback from the respondents in terms of its design and functionalities.

Keywords: Alternate Current - Direct Current, Prototype, digital devices, Learning, Teaching

Kelvin kris C. Gonzales, Bernadette D. Bagalay


In this digital age which highlights generations like Xennials, Millenials, Gen Z and Gen Alpha, students use technological tools such as computers, tablets and mobile phones very frequently and intensively in their social and academic lives. In order to respond to this trend as well as to provide supplemental teaching and learning modality in the absence of face-to-face classes due to COVID-19 pandemic, the Android-based Professional Education Enrichment Application was designed specifically for education students who are preparing and reviewing for the Board Licensure Examination for Professional Teachers. The limitation brought by the problems on internet connection when using android app was addressed through this Offline Android Application. Moreover, it was designed with the capability to randomize or shuffle test items and choices to minimize or eliminate cheating or copying among learners. With the added features of the application software reviewer, preparation of varied sets of tests on the part of teachers and reviewing as well as learning on the part of learners was made more convenient, practical, and efficient.

Keywords: android application, software reviewer, offline learning

Social Research Category

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Precila C. Delima


Gasoline plays a vital role in the economic development of Cauayan City. Since gasoline is an important input for transportation, it affects household consumption and travel, businesses especially those that rely on logistics and transportation chains. A deeper understanding on the current market conditions of the gasoline market in Cauayan City helps the local government to develop a policy to determine an optimal location between gasoline stations to promote healthy competition in the market but at the same time protect the health of residents of the city. This study evaluates the current condition of the gasoline market in the city, the locational pattern of existing stations, and the optimal distance between stations to residential area. Analysis shows that, most of the respondents buy fuel products about 3 to 5 times and spend a total of P1,000 to P3,000/monthly, think that prices are just right and there are already more than necessary gas stations located too close to each other. This is an indication that the retail gasoline market in Cauayan City is already saturated with too many firms competing. Further, it was also found that many gasoline stations in Cauayan City are located near residential areas.

Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, Smart City, Petroleum

Precila C. Delima, Ermel Delima, Lorelei C. Tabago, Marisol Foronda


Effective local governance can make cities more competitive, more efficient and more attractive to by promoting the sustainable development of the urban environment. It is the goal of the City of Ilagan to support the health, wellbeing and the quality of life of each and every Ilagueños by improving its transport options, reducing private car dependency, traffic congestion, and reducing health problems. The project was conducted to evaluate the market viability of HERT, to determine the number of PUVs drivers and conductors to be displaced by HERT and to commence the fabrication of HERT. It evaluated the potential of HERT as an alternative transport system and as a source of additional income for the local government. Six scenarios were considered such as the various risks associated to this potential investment. For each scenario, the payback period, ROI and NPV of HERT were computed. Analyses shows that 75 to 100 percent capacity of the HERT within 10 to 15 years shows a positive profitability for the local government unit of Ilagan. As such, the project will address the transportation problems in the province but will also provide an additional source of revenues for the LGU in the long run.

Keywords: Cauayan City, Ilagan City, e- vehicles, Smart City

Helen T. Asio, Janette D. Yap


This study titled, Community Needs Assessment in the Eastern Parts of the City of Ilagan Isabela: The Key in Building Responsive Extension Programs” aims to find out the deep needs of the community as basis in the selection of beneficiary of “Adopt-a-Barangay” Program of Isabela State University.

Descriptive Research Design using Quantitative –Qualitative Approach was used in this study. A modified self-made survey questionnaire patterned from the WHO Health Assessment Questionnaire was utilized to data from 346 respondents. Among the significant findings noted were: majority of the respondents are “unemployed”; “Lack of educational qualification” as the main reason of unemployment. “Flood” was identified as their accident hazard; “boiling” as methods of sanitizing water; “burning” garbage; “mosquito” as present vector found at “drainage” as breeding site; and “insecticide” is used to control vector. Majority are “aware” of government programs; used “pills” and “tubal ligation”; and majority used “Herbal” medicine as treatment. Landscaping, cooking, food processing, baking, basic sewing, driving, health education, physical fitness, cosmetology, table setting and handicraft are the priority skills need by the respondents. It is recommended that there should be collaboration of the different organization/agencies in the provisions of available resources/services in responding the urgent needs of the communities under study.

Keywords: Community Needs, Assessment, Extension

Ma. Teresa S. Alvarez, Exequiel M. Perez, Elmer A. Rosete


The Goal 6 of the 16 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out by the United Nations 2030 Agenda and SDGs is a nation call for a Clean Water and Sanitation. The access for a reliable and excellent water quality and sustained water supply services is deemed necessary for demographic, social and economic development of a society. The study aim was to assess the performance in terms of water supply and wastewater management aspects of the Local Water Utility (LWU) system of Santiago City. The performance evaluation was based on the following domains –(a) sustainability of water supply; (b) consumers satisfaction; and (c) waste management practices; including compliance of the local government unit and service units in accordance to water security and management. The assessment framework and indicators used were adapted from the International Water Association (IWA). The methods used in collecting information and/or data for this study involves the conduct of key informant interview and field survey wherein a total of 395 respondents from 12 active barangays were selected employing stratified random sampling. The results showed that in terms of water sustainability for the next 30-year considering the future population and based on the present demand as of 2019, water demand will skyrocket with an equivalent percent increase of 8.97%, 17.95%, and 28.20% for 2030, 2040, and 2050 respectively. The result analysis does not include the agricultural demands or groundwater withdrawal for agricultural purposes and individual domestic wells within the City of Santiago. Overall acceptability on water quality was acceptable with a rating of 52% wherein 66%, 67%, 65% and 56% acceptability rating were attributed by quality, taste, odor, color and pressure, respectively. The Santiago water district has two water treatment facilities located within the city. For the water waste disposal it is observed that there is a direct disposal of wastes to water bodies specifically to farm and drainage. The city of Santiago along with SANWAD has implemented ordinances and enabling laws on water/wastewater management for sustainable water resources utilization. Furthermore, in the issue of sustainability, it is highly recommended to develop alternative water resource that could increase water distribution efficiency, eliminate or lessen illegal tapping/ connection, increase coverage area, and maintain water quality valuation as a sustainable approach to sufficiently and dependably supply water demand for the future generations.

Keywords: Sustainable water supply, wastewater, performance of water supply