Research | SDG 6 – Clean Water and Sanitation

Technical Research Category

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Florenda B. Temanel


Utilization and management of forest resources by indigenous peoples that promote sustainable utilization and management has to be integrated into the planning and implementation of any conservation efforts. This requires information on composition and diversity of plant species, for these are of primary importance in planning and implementation of biodiversity conservation efforts. Bugkalot is one of the many ethnic tribes in the Philippines that are known to have an intimate relationship with the forest. To understand better the utilization and management on forest resources of the Bugkalots, the floral composition and plant species diversity of their forest must first be obtained. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the plant species diversity of the forest of the Bugkalots in Wasid, Nagtipunan, Quirino. Specifically, it was conducted to determine plant species composition of the forest, frequency, density, dominance and importance values of plant species present in the study area, and to determine the diversity of the plant species in the forest ecosystem.

A 200 m transect line was laid out. Three sampling plots measuring 10m x 10m were randomly established within the transect line. Each sampling point was divided into subplots measuring 1m x 1m for the inventory of saplings, vines, shrubs and other plants with ≤ 5 cm DBH. All plants within the sampling points were considered in the census. All free standing woody stems with a DBH of ≥ 5cm were included in the DBH measurement. Saplings, vines, herbs and plants other than trees were identified and their population was recorded. Data gathered were analysed using standard formulae to determine density, frequency, dominance, and importance value. The Simpson’s Indices and Shannon-Weiner diversity index (1949) were utilized to determine plant species diversity.

There are 18 tree species, 4 species of woody vines or lianas, 3 species of herbaceous vines, 8 tree species saplings, and 3 other plant species that constitute the floral composition of the forest. The overstorey layer of the forest of the Bugkalots in Wasid, Nagtipunan, Quirino is dominated by tree species belonging to the family Dipterocarapaceae where Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Blanco (Apitong) is the most abundant, most dominant, more evenly distributed and most important tree species. The understory layer of the forest is composed of different species of lianas or woody vines, herbaceous vines, tree species saplings and species of woody grass and fern and arecoid palm where Schizostachyum diffusum (Blanco) Merr (Bikal) of the Family Poaceae (Order Poales) is the most dominant species. Plant species diversity in the forest of Bugkalots in Wasid, Nagtipunan, Quirino is high, however, evenness of species in the study area and equitable distribution of importance values among species is moderate.

Keywords: diversity, abundance, dominance, overstorey, understorey

Laila M. Gallego, Isagani P. Angeles, Jr., Yew-Hu Chien


This study investigated the effects of light source [LED White (LW), fluorescent white (T5) and LED Blue (LB)] and photoperiod (12:12, 16:08, 24:00 light: dark) on growth of duckweed Landoltia punctata and the resulting effects on its water quality for 16 days. The average daily relative growth rate (RGR) reached about 0.519 g d-1. Both light source and photoperiod, had no significant difference on the mean RGR, however, their interaction had significant effects on duckweed’s growth (p≤0.05). Moreover, except T5 (24:00) > [T5 (12:12) ≥ T5 (16:08) ≥ LB (24:00)], LW (12:12) > [T5 (16:08) ≥ LB (24:00)], and LB (12:12) > LB (24:00), there were no differences in RGR in all pair-comparisons of treatment (p≤0.05). Nitrate (NO3-) influenced the most in weight increment (WI), 70 %. For light source and photoperiod effects on water quality, no total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was detected in all treatments after 16 days while NO3- increased gradually. In addition, results show that most of the total nitrogen (TN) was contributed from NO3- (R2= 0.9999). Overall, our findings could contribute on producing duckweed in a controlled and programmed condition for maximum production and quality. Constructed models and practical application contribute in predicting nutrients sensitivity and proven useful in water management or water quality assessments.

Social Research Category

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Ma. Teresa S. Alvarez, Exequiel M. Perez, Elmer A. Rosete


The Goal 6 of the 16 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out by the United Nations 2030 Agenda and SDGs is a nation call for a Clean Water and Sanitation. The access for a reliable and excellent water quality and sustained water supply services is deemed necessary for demographic, social and economic development of a society. The study aim was to assess the performance in terms of water supply and wastewater management aspects of the Local Water Utility (LWU) system of Santiago City. The performance evaluation was based on the following domains –(a) sustainability of water supply; (b) consumers satisfaction; and (c) waste management practices; including compliance of the local government unit and service units in accordance to water security and management. The assessment framework and indicators used were adapted from the International Water Association (IWA). The methods used in collecting information and/or data for this study involves the conduct of key informant interview and field survey wherein a total of 395 respondents from 12 active barangays were selected employing stratified random sampling. The results showed that in terms of water sustainability for the next 30-year considering the future population and based on the present demand as of 2019, water demand will skyrocket with an equivalent percent increase of 8.97%, 17.95%, and 28.20% for 2030, 2040, and 2050 respectively. The result analysis does not include the agricultural demands or groundwater withdrawal for agricultural purposes and individual domestic wells within the City of Santiago. Overall acceptability on water quality was acceptable with a rating of 52% wherein 66%, 67%, 65% and 56% acceptability rating were attributed by quality, taste, odor, color and pressure, respectively. The Santiago water district has two water treatment facilities located within the city. For the water waste disposal it is observed that there is a direct disposal of wastes to water bodies specifically to farm and drainage. The city of Santiago along with SANWAD has implemented ordinances and enabling laws on water/wastewater management for sustainable water resources utilization. Furthermore, in the issue of sustainability, it is highly recommended to develop alternative water resource that could increase water distribution efficiency, eliminate or lessen illegal tapping/ connection, increase coverage area, and maintain water quality valuation as a sustainable approach to sufficiently and dependably supply water demand for the future generations.

Keywords: Sustainable water supply, wastewater, performance of water supply